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The Castle of Buron

Its architecture

Even though a wooden structure was highly possible in the earliest Antiquity, the castle dates back to 13th century. It has every characteristic of a defensive castle of the time. It was made of a huge main building, two fortified surrounding walls with four round towers on each side. A dwelling was added in the curtain wall in 1650.

Its plan is determined by the shape of the rock that the castle occupies totally. The escarpment of the peak replaces the first lines of defence.
In the north a crescent-shaped mound with a scarp and a counterscarp was erected with enough distance between each other to give space for a large and deep moat located between the mound and the rock.

In the moat along the curtain wall, a wooden curtain wall was settled and led to the castle door through sheltered corridors. Arrow slits built in the walls along the wooden curtain wall allowed defenders situated in the low room to shoot at the enemies. Finally a dungeon was built in the north of the structure near the ramparts.

A drawbridge was found in the west of the moat. It led to a long and narrow corridor that reached the door and the wooden curtain wall.

The castle was supplied with water thanks to two cisterns gathering rain water.

Its history

At the end of 12th century and the beginning of 13th century Philippe Auguste sent his army to Auvergne to stamp down several revolts. Under king Saint Louis’ reign the Counts were given back their possessions and dwelled in Vic Le Comte. Their first worry was to fortify their new capital city. This is the reason why the castles of Buron, Enval, Mirefleurs, Busséol, Laps, Craimps, Saint Babel were built or renovated. The castle of Buron had two roles. The first one was to guard the Roman path that run near. The second one was to stop invaders who managed to cross the Allier river between Saint Yvoine and Coudes.

The territory of Buron remained in the Counts of Auvergne’s possession to 1569 when the queen Catherine of Medicis gave it to Antoine of Sarlan, her butler.
Then Richelieu accepted to remove the castle of Buron from the list of castles to be dismantled.
The castle of Buron has known numerous owners. The last owner of the castle and its grounds were sold to the Count Paul of Verdonnet who fled during the French revolution. His possessions were scattered.

The lookout

In time of peace the castle was kept by a valet as the captain lived somewhere else. In time of war the captain enrolled men of the surrounding villages who were submitted to the feudal duty of the watch.
In 15th century the castle of Buron and the other surrounding castles were military castles. However the main event when the castle of Buron was of military paramount importance, was during the war of the league in Auvergne.

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